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The following examples are presented: 1 3 Finnish students…. Leonardo da Vinci's foot: historical evidence of concept. Leonardo da Vinci , world-renowned Italian renaissance master, is known for his contributions to, and broad interests in science and art. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the extent of his science by applying the use of his concepts to current models of foot and ankle mechanics. The art and science of Leonardo Da Vinci were extensively analyzed by reviewing his original drawings and hand written notebooks as well as their English translation.

Current medical journals including the topics of foot, ankle, and biomechanics were reviewed for modern evidence and application of his concepts. From the depths of Santa Maria Nuova Hospital in Florence and Santo Spirito Hospital in Rome, through his commentary and anatomical drawings of around 30 cadaver dissections he performed, Leonardo da Vinci expressed his concept of foot and ankle anatomy and mechanics. He laid forth concepts, which vary little from current theories including those of proportion, statics and joint stability, sesamoid biomechanics, and structural support of the foot.

Leonardo da Vinci, by combining an interest in anatomy and a gift of genius and artistic ability laid a foundation of foot and ankle anatomy and mechanics that have been applied in modern clinical sciences. Leonardo in this way made important contributions to the practice of foot and ankle orthopedics. Women and Technical Professions. This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: 1 Artemis and Diana vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers ; 2 CEEWIT an Internet-based information and….

Training and Health. This document profiles programs in the fields of health and medicine that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: 1 CYTOTRAIN a transnational vocational training program in cervical cancer screening ; 2 Apollo a program of open and distance learning for paramedical…. Protection Agency U. Orbit determination for Near-Earth Asteroids presents unique technical challenges due to the imperative of early detection and careful assessment of the risk posed by specific Earth close approaches.

The occurrence of an Earth impact can be decisively driven by the Yarkovsky effect, which is the most important nongravitational perturbation as it causes asteroids to undergo a secular variation in semimajor axis resulting in a quadratic effect in anomaly. We discuss the cases of Apophis and DA. For DA the influence of the Yarkovsky effect in is due to the long time interval preceding the impact. We use the available information from the astrometry and the asteroids' physical models and dynamical evolution as a starting point for a Monte Carlo method that allows us to measure how the Yarkovsky effect affects orbital predictions.

For Apophis we map onto the close approach b-plane and analyze the keyholes corresponding to resonant close approaches. For DA we use the b-plane corresponding to the possible impact in We finally compute the impact probability from the mapped probability density function on the considered b-plane. For Apophis we have 4 in a million chances of an impact in , while the probability of Earth impact in for DA is 0. Depending on The Battalion Commander or the first Lieutenant Colonel in the chain of command is DA Form within 45 days of receipt.

That portion of the signature block of DA Form No significant peak time changes resulted, nor increased parameter variability. JCo DA : a tool for detecting evolutionary selection. The incorporation of annotated sequence information from multiple related species in commonly used databases Ensembl, Flybase, Saccharomyces Genome Database, Wormbase, etc. This influx of information has provided a considerable amount of raw material for evaluation of evolutionary relationships.

The JCo DA package includes a graphical interface for Phylip Phylogeny Inference Package to generate phylogenetic trees, manages formatting of all required file types, and streamlines passage of information between underlying programs. The raw data are output to user configurable graphs with sliding window options for straightforward visualization of pairwise or gene family comparisons.

To illustrate the types of analyses that are facilitated by JCo DA , we have taken advantage of the well studied sex determination pathway in nematodes as well as the extensive sequence information available to identify genes under positive selection, examples of regional positive selection, and differences in selection based on the role of genes in the sex determination pathway. JCo DA is a configurable, open source, user-friendly visualization tool for performing evolutionary analysis on homologous coding.

Background The incorporation of annotated sequence information from multiple related species in commonly used databases Ensembl, Flybase, Saccharomyces Genome Database, Wormbase, etc. Conclusions JCo DA is a configurable, open source, user-friendly visualization tool for performing evolutionary. Da Vinci's Mona Lisa entering the next dimension.

In case of the Mona Lisa, a quite exceptional, rediscovered studio copy was presented to the public in by the Prado Museum in Madrid. Not only does it mirror its famous counterpart superficially; it also features the very same corrections to the lower layers, which indicates that da Vinci and the 'copyist' must have elaborated their panels simultaneously.

On the basis of subjective thirty-two participants estimated painter-model constellations as well as objective data analysis of trajectories between landmarks of both paintings , we revealed that both versions differ slightly in perspective. We reconstructed the original studio setting and found evidence that the disparity between both paintings mimics human binocular disparity. This points to the possibility that the two Giocondas together might represent the first stereoscopic image in world history. Pan Da Tox: A tool for accelerated metabolic engineering. Metabolic engineering is often facilitated by cloning of genes encoding enzymes from various heterologous organisms into E.

Such engineering efforts are frequently hampered by foreign genes that are toxic to the E. We have developed Pan Da Tox www. The toxicity predictions, which were extensively experimentally verified, are based on serial cloning of genes into E. Da -jiang is a typical traditional fermented soybean product in China. At present, the proteins in da -jiang are needed to be explored. The results showed that the number and variety of microbial proteins in the traditional fermented da -jiang from different regions were different.

The production site influences the fermentation in da -jiang. Then we analyzed the functions of the microbial proteins identified in da -jiang, and found that they were mainly involved in the process of protein synthesis, glycometabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. In addtion, we compared the proteins composition in different da -jiang.

There are 51 common proteins of naturally fermented da -jiang, and 25 common microbial sources. The main commonly microbial sources of fungal proteins are Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces; the main commonly microbial sources of bacterial proteins are Enterococcus faecalis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Bacillus subtilis. These common microbes play the predominant role in da -jiang fermentation. The present results help us to understand the fermentation of da -jiang and improve the quality and safety of final products in the future.

A method of extracting metaproteome from microbiota in da -jiang was attempted. The findings help to understand the fermentation of da -jiang and improve the quality and safety of da -jiang in fermented industry. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the effect of DA on neurite outgrowth. DA , an extract from a mixture of Dioscorea japonica and Dioscorea nipponica, was reported to promote neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

The effects of DA on cell viability and expression of neuronal markers were evaluated in PC12 cells. Conversely, the selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor SB did not attenuate the DA treatment-induced increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells. Insights into the mechanism underlying this effect of DA may suggest novel potential strategies for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy.

Purpose This study aims 1 to investigate the feasibility of robot-assisted penetrating keratoplasty PK using the new Da Vinci Xi Surgical System and 2 to report what we believe to be the first use of this system in experimental eye surgery. After an 8-mm corneal trephination, four interrupted sutures and one For each procedure, duration and successful completion of the surgery as well as any unexpected events were assessed.

The depth of the corneal sutures was checked postoperatively using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography SD-OCT. Results Robot-assisted PK was successfully performed on 12 corneas. The Da Vinci Xi Surgical System provided the necessary dexterity to perform the different steps of surgery. The mean duration of the procedures was There were no unexpected intraoperative events. SD-OCT confirmed that the sutures were placed at the appropriate depth. Conclusions We confirm the feasibility of robot-assisted PK with the new Da Vinci Surgical System and report the first use of the Xi model in experimental eye surgery.

Operative time of robot-assisted PK surgery is now close to that of conventional manual surgery due to both improvement of the optical system and the presence of microsurgical instruments. Translational Relevance Experimentations will allow the advantages of robot-assisted microsurgery to be identified while underlining the improvements and innovations necessary for clinical use. Complete da Vinci versus laparoscopic pyeloplasty: cost analysis. Computer-assisted pyeloplasty with the da Vinci system is an emerging technique to treat ureteropelvic junction UPJ obstruction.


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A relative cost analysis was performed assessing this technology in comparison with purely laparoscopic pyeloplasty. Eight patients underwent computer-assisted da Vinci dismembered pyeloplasty CP via a transperitoneal four-port approach. They were compared with 13 patients who underwent purely laparoscopic pyeloplasty LP.

All patients had a primary UPJ obstruction and were matched for age, sex, and body mass index. The cost of equipment and capital depreciation for both procedures, as well as assessment of room set-up time, takedown time, and personnel were analyzed. Surgeons and nursing staff for both groups were experienced in both laparoscopy and da Vinci procedures. One- and two-way financial analysis was performed to assess relative costs. The mean set-up and takedown time was 71 minutes for CP and 49 minutes for LP.

The mean length of stay was 2. There were no complications in either group. Two-way sensitivity analysis shows that in-room time must still be to obtain cost equivalence for CP. Perioperative parameters for CP are encouraging. However, the costs are a clear disadvantage. In our hospital, it is more cost effective to teach and perform LP than to perform CP. This study aims 1 to investigate the feasibility of robot-assisted penetrating keratoplasty PK using the new Da Vinci Xi Surgical System and 2 to report what we believe to be the first use of this system in experimental eye surgery.

Robot-assisted PK was successfully performed on 12 corneas. We confirm the feasibility of robot-assisted PK with the new Da Vinci Surgical System and report the first use of the Xi model in experimental eye surgery. Experimentations will allow the advantages of robot-assisted microsurgery to be identified while underlining the improvements and innovations necessary for clinical use.

Da Vinci's codex and the anatomy of healthcare. We usually display a laid-back approach to medical jargon throughout our theatre work. The word 'perioperative' is built from the Greek word 'peri' around and the Latin 'operari' to work. Latin and Greek became the prefixed language of choice for Leonardo da Vinci, and his research was pivotal in determining the way in which surgical procedures are documented.

Ancient manuscripts aided the unfolding of the secrets of anatomy, and Leonardo revealed that art was the key in expressive detailed explanation. The ATLAS computing model was originally designed as static clouds usually national or geographical groupings of sites around the Tier 1 centres, which confined tasks and most of the data traffic. We have based the development on two new site concepts. Nuclei sites are the Tier 1s and large Tier 2s, where tasks will be assigned and the output aggregated, and satellites are the sites that will execute the jobs and send the output to their nucleus.

Pan DA dynamically pairs nuclei and satellite sites for each task based on the input data availability, capability matching, site load and network connectivity. This contribution will introduce the conceptual changes for World-cloud, the development necessary in Pan DA , an insight into the network model and the first half-year of operational experience. Submitted jobs are executed on worker nodes by pilot jobs sent to the grid sites by pilot factories. This paper provides an overview of the Pan DA pilot [4] system and presents major features added in light of recent operational experience, including multi-job processing, advanced job recovery for jobs with output storage failures, gLExec [] based identity switching from the generic pilot to the actual user, and other security measures.

The Pan DA system serves all ATLAS distributed processing and is the primary system for distributed analysis; it is currently used at over sites worldwide. Common commercial cosmetic products induce arthritis in the DA rat. Many different agents, including mineral oil and silicone, have the capacity to act as immunological adjuvants, i. Some adjuvants, including mineral oil, are known to induce arthritis in certain strains of rats after intradermal injection or percutaneous application.

The aim of this study was to determine if common commercial cosmetic products containing mineral oil could induce arthritis in the highly susceptible DA Dark Agouti rat. Intradermal injection of five out of eight assayed cosmetic products without further additives resulted in arthritis with synovitis.

One of the products induced a very aggressive arthritis, which had declined after weeks. When this product was also assayed for arthritogenicity upon percutaneous administration, it induced a mild and transient arthritis in 5 out of 10 DA rats, whereas control animals showed no clinical signs of joint involvement. No arthritic reaction was seen in rats after peroral feeding with the most arthritogenic product or by intravaginal application of Freund's adjuvants.

Silicone gel implants in DA rats did not cause arthritis. We conclude that mineral oils included in common commercially available products retain their adjuvant properties and are arthritogenic in the presently investigated arthritis-prone rat strain. There is yet no evidence that mineral oils present in cosmetics may contribute to arthritis in humans, but we suggest that this question should be subject to further investigation.

Abstract 2, Maximum Characters : Orbit determination for Near-Earth Asteroids presents unique technical challenges due to the imperative of early detection and careful assessment of the risk posed by specific Earth close approaches. We use the available information on the asteroids' physical models as a starting point for a Monte Carlo method that allow us to measure how the Yarkovsky effect affects orbital predictions. Identification of an abundant 56 k Da protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase. Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic.

However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of k Da , 26 k Da , 33 k Da and 56 k Da have been identified as allergens. Describes Da RT, a computer assisted language-learning system for helping English-as-a-Second-Language students master English articles. Da RT uses a diagrammatic reasoning tool to present communicative contexts for exercises in choosing appropriate articles.

Comparison of the 2 Generations of da Vinci Systems. We aimed to compare perioperative outcomes for procedures using the latest generation of da Vinci robot versus its previous version in rectal cancer surgery. Fifty-three patients undergoing robotic rectal cancer surgery between January and March were included. In univariate analysis, the Xi group had shorter console times In multivariate analysis, Xi robot was associated with a shorter console time odds ratio: 0.

Both generations of da Vinci robot led to similar short-term outcomes in rectal cancer surgery, but the Xi robot allowed shorter console times. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples.

Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians.

However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts. Seeking 'energy' vs. This paper is a comparative ethnography of the therapeutic practices at two different spa locations: Caldas da Imperatriz, SC, Brazil, and Termas da Sulfurea in Cabeco de Vide, Portugal.

The comparison reveals the existence of contrasting 'explanatory models' held by the spa-goers as well as by the official medical systems. In the Portuguese context this model is highly medicalized; in the Brazilian case, spa treatments are viewed as 'alternative' or 'complementary' therapy and are also related to religious philosophies.

Each model corresponds to a different idiom expressing certain experiences and world views, one focusing on 'pains' dores and the other on 'energy' energia , the former leading to the rationale of 'curing', the latter to the notion of 'energizing'. In this paper the author intends to analyze and contrast the categories found in these models, which originate from different conceptions of health, illness and healing for Brazilian and Portuguese spa-goers.

The k Da proteins phosphorylated ion thrombin-activated human platelets are forms of the estrogen receptor-related k Da heat shock protein. Thrombin plays a critical role in platelet activation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Cellular activation by thrombin leads to the phosphorylation of multiple proteins, most of which are unidentified. The authors have characterized several k Da proteins that are rapidly phosphorylated following exposure of intact human platelets to thrombin. A murine monoclonal antibody raised to an unidentified estrogen receptor-related k Da protein selectively recognized these proteins as well as a more basic, unphosphorylated k Da protein.

Cellular activation by thrombin led to a marked shift in the proportion of protein from the k Da unphosphorylated form to the k Da phosphoprotein species. The k Da proteins were confirmed to be phosphorylated forms of HSP27 by immunoprecipitation studies. Thus, the estrogen receptor-related protein is HSP27, and the three major k Da proteins phosphorylated in thrombin-activated platelets are forms of HSP These data suggest a role for HSP27 in the signal transduction events of platelet activation. Leonardo da Vinci and his depictions of the human spine.

Few individuals in history have exerted so great an influence and made such extensive contributions to so many disciplines as Leonardo da Vinci. Da Vinci's inquisitive, experimental mentality led him to many discoveries, such as spinal cord function and the proper anatomy of several organ systems.

Respected not only as an artist but also as an anatomist, he made many significant contributions to the field. This article explores da Vinci's drawings, in relation to the anatomy of the human spine. In the first stage, the SIs of the methyl methacrylate, salicylic acid, methyl salicylate, ethyl salicylate, isopropanol and propanediol were below 1. In the second stage, sodium lauryl sulphate and xylene were classified as weak sensitizers. Benzalkonium chloride and glyoxal were strong sensitizers, and phthalic anhydride was an extreme sensitizer.

It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings before were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing after in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy.

Leonardo da Vinci and Kethem-Kiveris vena. In the drawing of coitus by Leonardo da Vinci are pictured the contemporary hypotheses regarding this act. The authors analyze the mamillaruteral connection depicted by the artist and grow up to believe that this is a hypothetical kiveris vena, female vein described by Anatomist Master Nicolai Physicus from the Salerno School. The Hebrew roots were found in the name. The connection is described also by Mondino in The Anathomia. Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery.

Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking.

The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data. Mammary artery harvesting using the Da Vinci Si robotic system. Internal mammary artery harvesting is an essential part of any coronary artery bypass operation. Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery has become reality in many centers as a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgery in selected patients. Internal mammary artery harvesting is the initial part of the procedure and should be performed equally safely if one wants to achieve excellence in patency rates for the bypass.

We here describe the technique for mammary harvesting with the Da Vinci Si robotic system. Leonardo da Vinci and the origin of semen. Ultratight crystal packing of a 10 k Da protein. The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase from G. While small organic molecules generally crystallize forming tightly packed lattices with little solvent content, proteins form air-sensitive high-solvent-content crystals.

Here, the crystallization and full structure analysis of a novel recombinant 10 k Da protein corresponding to the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase are reported. The orthorhombic crystal contained only Pan DA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment.

However, the core design of Pan DA is not experiment specific. The Pan DA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of Pan DA will be given, as well as the progress in extending Pan DA 's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking.

Pan DA has demonstrated at a very large scale the value of automated dynamic brokering of diverse workloads across distributed computing resources. The next generation of Pan DA will allow other data-intensive sciences and a wider exascale community employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS' experience and proven tools. Effects of DA -Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

The mesolimbic dopamine DA system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2- 3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl -ethyl]phenyl-propionamide DA -Phen showed in vivo effects as a DA -ergic modulator.

This study was aimed at investigate DA -Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated.

In conclusion, DA -Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA -Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA -Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction. As part of a multiwavelength study of the unusual radio supernova remnant DA , we present observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

Morphologically, the nebula appears to be slightly extended along a direction, in projection on the sky, previously demonstrated to be of significance in radio and ASCA observations; we argue that this represents the orientation of the pulsar spin axis. At smaller scales, a narrow X-ray feature is seen extending out 5" from the point source, but energetic arguments suggest that it is not the resolved termination shock of the pulsar wind against the ambient medium. Finally, we argue based on synchrotron lifetimes in the nebular magnetic field that DA represents the first example of a pulsar wind nebula in which electromagnetic flux makes up a significant part, together with particle flux, of the neutron star's wind.

DA induced the expression of mucin genes, production of mucin protein, and increase of number of mucin-secreting cells. The author describes potential evaluation capacity-building activities in contrast to the specifics of an evaluation design. Her response to the case of the Bunche- Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy is developed in three parts: 1 an initial framing of the Bunche- Da Vinci situation; 2 what should be done before signing a contract; and 3 ….

In , the Bunche Academy was chosen by its district to join in partnership with the Da Vinci Learning Corporation to embark on an ambitious whole-school reform initiative, especially designed by the corporation for low-performing schools. In this chapter, the author describes how, as illustrated in the Bunche- Da Vinci Learning Academy context,….

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DA on colorectal distension CRD -induced visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model. At 6 weeks after birth, CRD was applied to these rats with a pressure of 20 to 90 mm Hg, and changes in the mean arterial pressure MAP were measured at baseline i. The administration of DA at a dose of 1. Conclusions The administration of DA resulted in a significant increase in pain threshold in rats with CRD-induced visceral hypersensitivity.

The analysis Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing a 14k Da self-folding protein [abstract. A recent study in banana identified a 14k Da protein that has been hypothesized to function in regulating the nucleation and growth of the needle-shaped crystals of calcium oxalate that accumulate within the tissues of this plant. To gain further insight in to the functional role of this 14 k Da prote A syntactic-semantic investigation of subjunctive and indicative " da "-complements in Serbian is conducted in this project.

After a careful comparison of Serbian sentence constructions with " da "-complements to the equivalent sentence structures in languages of the Balkans as well as other Slavic languages, it is clearly…. Effect of DA on colorectal distension-induced visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model. DA is a newly developed drug made from the vegetal extracts of Pharbitidis semen and Co-rydalis tuber.

The administration of DA resulted in a significant increase in pain threshold in rats with CRD-induced visceral hypersensitivity. A central figure in the High Renaissance, Leonardo made extraordinary contributions as a…. This phase III, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, non-inferiority trial randomly assigned patients with endoscopically proven gastric mucosal erosions into two groups: DA 3 times daily or DA -5, twice daily for 2 weeks. The final analysis included patients DA , ; DA , The primary endpoint rate of effective gastric erosion healing and secondary endpoints cure rate of endoscopic erosion and gastrointestinal [GI] symptom relief were assessed using endoscopy after the treatment.

Drug-related adverse events AEs , including GI symptoms, were also compared. At week 2, gastric healing rates with DA and DA were The difference between the groups was The cure rate of gastric erosion in both groups was There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in both secondary endpoints. AEs were reported in 18 8. Rates of AE were not different between the two groups. These results demonstrate the non-inferiority of DA compared to DA DA is as effective as DA in the treatment of erosive gastritis. Registered randomized clinical trial at ClinicalTrials.

The heterogeneous symptom pattern and multiple causes of functional dyspepsia have resulted in multiple drug target strategies for its treatment. DA , a compound consisting of a combination of Corydalis Tuber and Pharbitidis Semen, has being developed for treatment of functional dyspepsia. It has multiple mechanisms of action such as fundus relaxation, visceral analgesia, and prokinetic effects.

Furthermore, it was found to significantly enhance meal-induced gastric accommodation and increase gastric compliance in dogs. DA also showed an analgesic effect in rats with colorectal distension induced visceral hypersensitivity and an antinociceptive effect in beagle dogs with gastric distension-induced nociception. The pharmacological effects of DA also include conventional effects, such as enhanced gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit.

The safety profi le of DA is also preferable to that of other treatments. Consistent with this, the CEA highly expresses corticotropin-releasing factor CRF , an important modulator of stress responses. Stress alters goal-directed responses associated with striatal paths, including maladaptive responses such as drug seeking, social withdrawal, and compulsive behavior. CEA inputs to the midbrain dopamine DA system are positioned to influence striatal functions through mesolimbic DA -striatal pathways.

However, the structure of this amygdala-CEA- DA neuron path to the striatum has been poorly characterized in primates. In primates, we combined neuronal tracer injections into various arms of the circuit through specific DA subpopulations to assess: 1 whether the circuit connecting amygdala, CEA, and DA cells follows CEA intrinsic organization, or a more direct topography involving bed nucleus vs central nucleus divisions; 2 CRF content of the CEA- DA path; and 3 striatal subregions specifically involved in CEA- DA -striatal loops.

Taking advantage of the previous development of dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice Tg showing a selective reduction of GSK-3 activity in forebrain neurons but not in dopaminergic neurons, we explored the relationship between GSK-3 and dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. Likewise, systemic quinpirole administration - acting preferentially on presynaptic DA D2- autoreceptors to modulate DA release-reduced striatal DA release similarly in both control and Tg mice.

Quinpirole reduced locomotor activity and induced c-fos expression in globus pallidus both striatal DA D2-R-mediated effects significantly more in WT than in Tg mice. Taking together, the present results show that dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice show reduced DA D2-R-mediated function in striatum and further support a link between dopaminergic neurotransmission and GSK-3 activity.

Opioid induced bowel dysfunction OIBD is associated with decreased gastrointestinal GI propulsive activity due to intake of opioid analgesics.

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The prokinetic effect of DA was assessed by charcoal transit and fecal pellet output assay in an OIBD model of guinea pig. DA significantly increased the amplitude and area under the curve of ileal muscle contraction, while there was insignificant effect on the distal colon compared to the control. In contrast, morphine significantly decreased the amplitude of ileal and distal colon muscle contraction compared to the control. Morphine delayed both upper P DA Morphine induced reduction of contractility was significantly ameliorated by addition of DA in both ileal and distal colon muscles.

DA significantly increased the amplitude of contraction of the ileal muscle, however the distal colon muscle contraction was insignificant. Effect of DA , a novel oral compound for premature ejaculation, on male rat sexual behavior. DA is a potent and selective serotonin transporter inhibitor developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DA on male sexual behavior in a rat model. No changes in post-ejaculatory interval, numbers of mounts, intromissions or ejaculations were observed at any dose. In pharmacokinetic study, the blood concentration of DA peaked at 0.

Treatment with DA delays the ejaculation latency time without affecting the initiation of mounting behavior or post-ejaculatory interval in rats. Furthermore, DA is rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration in rats. These preclinical findings provide a clue for the clinical testing of DA as an "on-demand" agent for premature ejaculation.

The central extended amygdala CEA has been conceptualized as a 'macrosystem' that regulates various stress-induced behaviors. Pharmacological action of DA on the motility of feline stomach circular smooth muscle. DA , a new prokinetic agent for the treatment of functional dyspepsia, is formulated with Pharbitis semen and Corydalis tuber.

This study wasconducted to determine the pharmacological action of DA and to identify the receptors involved in DA -induced contractile responsesin the feline gastric corporal, fundic and antral circular smooth muscle. Concentration-response curve to DA was established.


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The tissue trips were exposed to methylsergide, ketanserin, ondansetron, GR , atropine and dopamine before administration of DA The contractile force was determined before and after administration of drugs by a polygraph. DA enhanced the spontaneous contractile amplitude of antrum, corpus and fundus. However, it did not change the spontaneous contractile frequency of antrum and corpus, but concentration-dependently reduced that of fundus. In the fundus, DA -induced tonic contractions were inhibited by dopamine, methylsergide, ketanserine, ondansetron or GR respectively, but not by atropine, indicating that the contractile responses are mediated by multiple receptors: 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and dopamine receptors.

In the corpus, DA induced contractions were blocked by atropine, dopamine or GR , but not by methysergide, ketanserin or ondansetron, indicating that they are involved in receptors on both, smooth muscles and neurons: 5-HT4 and dopamine receptors. However, contractile responses to DA are mainly mediated by dopamine receptors in the antrum.

These results suggest that DA has important roles in gastric accommodation by enhancing tonic activity of fundus, and in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit by phasic contractions of corpus and antrum mediated by multiple receptors. Thirty-five are found to be new identifications after cross-correlation with the Eisenstein et al. The effective temperature and gravity of these WDs are estimated by Balmer lines fitting. Most of them are hot WDs. The cooling times and masses of these WDs are estimated by interpolation in theoretical evolution tracks.

The distances of these WDs are estimated using the method of synthetic spectral distances. All of these WDs are found to be in the Galactic disk from our analysis of space motions. Our sample supports the expectation that WDs with high mass are concentrated near the plane of the Galactic disk.

A k Da human immunostimulatory protein. We purified to apparent homogeneity a human urinary glycoprotein of 92 k Da HGP. Since HGP. Furthermore, inflammatory macrophages incubated with 6 nM HGP.

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These two activities appeared to depend on an oligosaccharide moiety, as they were lost after N-Glycanase treatment of HGP. Thus, the biological activity of HGP. Images PMID Nechaeva, M. The reflected signal was received using two m radio telescopes in Medicina Italy and Irbene Latvia in radiointerferometric mode. The Doppler frequency shifts in bi-static radar mode and interference frequency in VLBI mode were measured. Accuracy of the VLBI radar method for determining the radial and angular velocities of the asteroid were estimated.

A telemanipulator for laparoscopic instruments is now available in the world of surgical robotics. This device has three distincts advantages over traditional laparoscopic surgery: it improves precision because of the many degrees of freedom of its instruments, and it offers 3-D vision so as better ergonomics for the surgeon. These characteristics are most useful for procedures that require delicate suturing in a focused operative field which may be difficult to reach. The Da Vinci robot has found its place in 2 domains of laparoscopic urologic surgery: radical prostatectomy and ureteral surgery.

The cost of the robot, so as the price of its maintenance and instruments is high. This increases healthcare costs in comparison to open surgery, however not dramatically since patients stay less time in hospital and go back to work earlier. The effect of the combination of FDA and carbogen was only observed in the transplanted mammary tumor.

We concluded that the effect of FDA on the radiosensitivity of experimental tumors varies with the kind of tumor systems. Sine ars scientia nihil est: Leonardo da Vinci and beyond. The aim of this article is to reflect on the relationship between art and science so far as it concerns a symposium on neurosciences. We undertake a historical overview of that relationship, paying particular attention to the sui generis case of Leonardo da Vinci, who very often is regarded as the man who worked on art and science with equal ease.

We then explain why his idea of merging these two forms of knowledge failed, considering the clear-cut distinction between art and science in his time. With this clarification, we explore the matter today. We look at Raphael's The Transfiguration, in which the representation of the possessed boy is seen by neuroscientists as indicative of an epileptic seizure. We also look at the ideas of neuroscientists Semir Zeki and Vilayanur Ramachandran, who study particular aspects of brain function and suggest a new merging of art and science.

Leonardo da Vinci's Manuscript D consists of five double pages sheets, which, folded in two, comprise ten folios. This document, in the old Tuscan dialect and mirror writing, reveals the ideas of Leonardo on the anatomy of the eye in relation to the formation of images and visual perception.

Leonardo explains in particular the behavior of the rays in the eye in terms of refraction and reflection, and is very mechanistic in his conception of the eye and of the visual process. The most significant innovations found in these folios are the concept of the eye as a camera obscura and the intersection of light rays in the interior of the eye. His texts nevertheless show hesitation, doubts and a troubled confusion, reflecting the ideas and uncertainties of his era.

He did not share his results in his lifetime, despite both printing and etching being readily available to him. Leonardo da Vinci: the search for the soul. The human race has always contemplated the question of the anatomical location of the soul. During the Renaissance the controversy crystallized into those individuals who supported the heart "cardiocentric soul" and others who supported the brain "cephalocentric soul" as the abode for this elusive entity. Leonardo da Vinci joined a long list of other explorers in the "search for the soul.

Leonardo used a myriad of innovative methods acquired from his knowledge of painting, sculpture, and architecture to define more clearly the site of the "senso comune"--the soul. In this review the author examines the sources of this ancient question, the knowledge base tapped by Leonardo for his personal search for the soul, and the views of key individuals who followed him. Low-bandgap near-infrared polymers are usually synthesized using the common donor-acceptor D-A approach.

However, recently polymer chemists are introducing more complex chemical concepts for better fine tuning of their optoelectronic properties. Usually these studies are limited to one or two polymer examples in each case study so far, though. In this study, the dependence of optoelectronic and macroscopic device performance properties in a series of six new D-A 1 - D-A 2 low bandgap semiconducting polymers is reported for the first time. Correlation between the chemical structure of single-component polymer films and their optoelectronic properties has been achieved in terms of absorption maxima, optical bandgap, ionization potential, and electron affinity.

All the devices are fabricated in an inverted architecture with the photoactive layer processed in air with doctor blade technique, showing the compatibility with roll-to-roll large-scale manufacturing processes. KGaA, Weinheim. Cloning and functional characterization of the DA 2 receptor gene in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

Dopamine DA plays a modulatory role in numerous physiological processes such as light adaptation and food intake, and exerts these functions through DA receptors DARs. This study presents, for the first time, isolation and characterization of the dopamine receptor 2 DA 2 receptor cDNA from the intestinal tissue of Eriocheir sinensis, an economically important freshwater aquaculture species in China.

The DA 2 receptor cDNA sequence, which was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends, is bp long, encode peptide of amino acid, and is highly homologous to related sequences in crustaceans. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence and the structure of the DA 2 indicated that this receptor is a member of the family of G protein-coupled receptors GPCRs , as it contains seven transmembrane domains and other common signatures of GPCRs.

RT-PCR showed that the expression of the DA 2 receptor gene was distributed in various tissues, and high expression levels were observed in the cranial ganglia and the thoracic ganglia. Further study of the effect of photoperiod on DA 2 expression showed that constant darkness induced a significant increase in DA 2 expression in the cranial ganglia. Finally, analysis of DA 2 receptor expression under different feeding statuses showed that there was significantly greater expression in the hepatopancreas and intestines after feeding than before feeding, but there were no differences in expression between the before feeding and during feeding periods in either tissue.

Our results indicate that the DA 2 receptor structurally belongs to the family of G protein-coupled receptors, and that the cranial ganglia are the main tissues in which the DA 2 receptor participates in light adaptation during dark hours. In addition, the DA 2 receptor in E. This study provides a foundation for further exploration of the light. The da Vinci robotic surgical assisted anterior lumbar interbody fusion: technical development and case report. Technique development to use the da Vince Robotic Surgical System for anterior lumbar interbody fusion at L5-S1 is detailed.

A case report is also presented. To evaluate and develop the da Vinci robotic assisted laparoscopic anterior lumbar stand-alone interbody fusion procedure. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion is a common procedure associated with potential morbidity related to the surgical approach. The da Vinci robot provides intra-abdominal dissection and visualization advantages compared with the traditional open and laparoscopic approach. The surgical techniques for approach to the anterior lumbar spine using the da Vinci robot were developed and modified progressively beginning with operative models followed by placement of an interbody fusion cage in the living porcine model.

Development continued to progress with placement of fusion cage in a human cadaver, completed first in the laboratory setting and then in the operating room. Finally, the first patient with fusion completed using the da Vinci robot-assisted approach is presented. The anterior transperitoneal approach to the lumbar spine is accomplished with enhanced visualization and dissection capability, with maintenance of pneumoperitoneum using the da Vinci robot. Blood loss is minimal. The visualization inside the disc space and surrounding structures was considered better than current open and laparoscopic techniques.

The da Vinci robot Surgical System technique continues to develop and is now described for the transperitoneal approach to the anterior lumbar spine. Performances on simulator and da Vinci robot on subjects with and without surgical background. To assess whether previous training in surgery influences performance on da Vinci Skills Simulator and da Vinci robot. In this prospective study, thirty-seven participants 11 medical students, 17 residents, and 9 attending surgeons without previous experience in laparoscopy and robotic surgery performed 26 exercises at da Vinci Skills Simulator.

Thirty-five then executed a suture using a da Vinci robot. Endogenous dopamine DA modulates 3H spiperone binding in vivo in rat brain. DA releasers and uptake inhibitors increased SPI binding in rat striatum. In other brain areas, the effects were variable, but only the pituitary remained unaffected. Surprisingly, nomifensine decreased SPI binding in frontal cortex. The effects of these drugs were monitored by measuring DA , serotonin 5-HT and their metabolites in the same rats.

In contrast, reserpine enhanced SPI binding in pituitary. It is suggested that in vivo, DA receptors are submitted to dynamic regulation in response to changes in intrasynaptic concentrations of DA. Early experience using the da Vinci Surgical System for the treatment of mediastinal tumors.

The da Vinci Surgical System has been used in only a few cases for treating mediastinal tumors in Japan. Recently, we used the da Vinci Surgical System for various types of anterior and middle mediastinal tumors in clinical practice. We report our early experience using the da Vinci Surgical System. Seven patients gave written informed consent to undergo robotic surgery for mediastinal tumor dissection using the da Vinci Surgical System. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of this system for the surgical treatment of mediastinal tumors.

Two specialists in thoracic surgery who are certified to use the da Vinci S Surgical System and another specialist acted as an assistant performed the tumor dissection. We were able to access difficult-to-reach areas, such as the mediastinum, safely. All the resected tumors were classified as benign tumors histologically. The average da Vinci setting time was The learning curve for the da Vinci setup and manipulation time was short. Robotic surgery enables mediastinal tumor dissection in certain cases more safely and easily than conventional video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and less invasively than open thoracotomy.

Vectra DA for the objective measurement of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

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Quantitative and regular assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis RA is required to achieve treatment targets such as remission and to optimize clinical outcomes. To assess inflammation accurately, predict joint damage and monitor treatment response, a measure of disease activity in RA should reflect the pathological processes resulting in irreversible joint damage and functional disability.

Vectra DA provides an accurate, reproducible score on a scale of 1 to based on the concentrations of 12 biomarkers that reflect the pathophysiologic diversity of RA. The analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility of Vectra DA have been evaluated for patients with RA in registries and prospective and retrospective clinical studies. As a biomarker-based instrument for assessing disease activity in RA, the Vectra DA test can help monitor therapeutic response to methotrexate and biologic agents and assess clinically challenging situations, such as when clinical measures are confounded by non-inflammatory pain from fibromyalgia.

Vectra DA scores correlate with imaging of joint inflammation and are predictive for radiographic progression, with high Vectra DA scores being associated with more frequent and severe progression and low scores being predictive for non-progression. In summary, the Vectra DA score is an objective measure of RA disease activity that quantifies inflammatory status. By predicting risk for joint damage more effectively than conventional clinical and laboratory measures, it has the potential to complement these measures and optimise clinical decision making.

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Wuzhou Cangwu Co. Cenxi Co. Liangqi Lei, Cian Song, and Zuohai Feng : The types of hidden lead-zinc deposits and the exploration prospect in the volcanic cover terrain of Fuzichong belt, southeastern Guangxi, China. Geology and Prospecting 38 1 , Yulin Bobai Co. Luchuan Co. Guizhou Guiyang Qingzhen Co. In: Planetary Materials Papike, J. Hainan Changjiang Co. Hebei Baoding Laiyuan Co. Chengde Chengde Co. Fengning Co. Luanping Co. Handan She Co. Wu'an Co. Qinhuangdao Qinglong Co. Tangshan Qian'an Co. Zunhua Co. Xingtai Shahe Co. Zhangjiakou Chicheng Co.

Chongli Co. Huai'an Co. Zhuolu Co. Yanshou Co. Hegang Luobei Co. Heihe Nenjiang Co. Xunke Co. Jixi Jidong Co. Mudanjiang Hailin Co. Muling Co. Shuangyashan Baoqing Co. Tieli Co. Henan Jiyuan Co. Luohe Wuyang Co. Luoyang Luanchuan Co. Song Co. Nanyang Tongbai Co. Xichuan Co. Zhenping Co. Pingdingshan Lushan Co. Wugang Co. Sanmenxia Lingbao Co. Lushi Co. Zhumadian Biyang Co. McQueen, K. Hong Kong Geologist, 1, Huangshi Daye Co. Yangxin Co. Jingmen Jingshan Co.

Xiaogan Dawu Co. Hunan Changsha Liuyang Co. Indium mineralization in a Sn-poor skarn deposit: A case study of the Qibaoshan deposit, South China. Minerals, 7 5 , Guiyang Co.